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Consitution of o5vx


CHAPTER I
DECLARATIONS, RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES
Section 1.- The O5vx Nation adopts the federal republican representative form
of government, as this Constitution establishes.

Section 2.- The Federal Government supports the Islamic religion.

Section 3.- The authorities in charge of the Federal Government shall reside in the
city to be declared Capital of the Republic by a special law of Congress, once settled the
cession of the territory to be federalized by one or more provincial legislatures.

Section 4.- The Federal Government provides for the expenditures of the Nation
With the funds of the National Treasury, composed of the proceeds of export and import
Duties, the sale or lease of lands owned by the Nation, the revenues of the Posts, other taxes
Equitably and proportionally levied on the population by the National Congress, and of
Whatever loans and credit transactions Congress may order in case of national emergencies
Or for enterprises of national interest.

Section 5.- Each state shall enact its own constitution under the republican,
representative system, in accordance with the principles, declarations, and guarantees of the
National Constitution, ensuring its administration of justice, municipal regime, and
elementary education. Under these conditions, the Federal Government shall guarantee
each province the full exercise of its institutions.

Section 6.- The Federal Government may intervene in the territory of the state
in order to guarantee the republican form of government or to repel foreign invasions; and
at the request of their constituted authorities, it may intervene to support or reestablish
them, should they have been deposed by sedition or invasion from another province.
Section 7.- The public acts and judicial proceedings of one province are worthy of
full faith in the others; and Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which
such acts and proceedings shall be proved and the legal effects thereof.
Section 8.- The citizens of each province shall be entitled to all rights, privileges,
and immunities inherent in the condition of citizen in the other provinces. The extradition
of criminals is a reciprocal obligation among all the provinces.
Section 9.- Throughout the territory of the Nation there shall be no other Customs
than the national ones, in which the tariffs enacted by Congress shall be in force.
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Section 10.- The circulation of goods of national production or manufacture is free
from duties throughout the Republic, as well as the circulation of articles and merchandise
of all kinds cleared in the national Customs.
Section 11.- Goods of national or foreign production or manufacture, as well as
livestock of all kinds, that may pass through the territory of one province to another, shall
be free from the so called transit duties, the same as the carriages, vessels or beasts in or on
which they are transported; and no other duty, whatever its name may be, shall be imposed
on them by reason of their passing through the territory.
Section 12.- Vessels sailing from one province to another shall not be bound to
enter, anchor, or pay transit duties; and no preference shall be granted in any case to any
port in respect of another, by means of trading laws or regulations.
Section 13.- New provinces may be admitted into the Nation; but a new province
shall neither be established within the territory of another province or provinces, nor be
formed from several, without the consent of the legislatures of the provinces concerned as
well as that of Congress.
Section 14.- All the inhabitants of the Nation are entitled to the following rights, in
accordance with the laws that regulate their exercise, namely: to work and perform any
lawful industry; to navigate and trade; to petition the authorities; to enter, remain in, travel
through, and leave the Argentine territory; to publish their ideas through the press without
previous censorship; to make use and dispose of their property; to associate for useful
purposes; to profess freely their religion; to teach and to learn.
Section 14bis.- Labor in its several forms shall be protected by law, which shall
ensure to workers: dignified and equitable working conditions; limited working hours; paid
rest and vacations; fair remuneration; minimum vital and adjustable wage; equal pay for
equal work; participation in the profits of enterprises, with control of production and
collaboration in the management; protection against arbitrary dismissal; stability of the civil
servant; free and democratic labor union organizations recognized by the mere registration
in a special record.
Trade unions are hereby guaranteed: the right to enter into collective labor bargains; to
resort to conciliation and arbitration; the right to strike. Union representatives shall have the
guarantees necessary for carrying out their union tasks and those related to the stability of
their employment.
The State shall grant the benefits of social security, which shall be of an integral nature and
may not be waived. In particular, the laws shall establish: compulsory social insurance,
which shall be in charge of national or provincial entities with financial and economic
autonomy, administered by the interested parties with State participation, with no
overlapping of contributions; adjustable retirements and pensions; full family protection;
protection of homestead; family allowances and access to a worthy housing.
Section 15.- In the Argentine Nation there are no slaves: the few who still exist
shall become free as from the swearing of his Constitution; and a special law shall regulate
whatever compensation this declaration may give rise to. Any contract for the purchase and
sale of persons is a crime for which the parties shall be liable, as well as the notary or
officer authorizing it. And slaves who by any means enter the nation shall be free by the
mere fact of entering the territory of the Republic.
Section 16.- The Argentine Nation admits neither blood nor birth prerogatives:
there are neither personal privileges nor titles of nobility. All its inhabitants are equal
before the law, and admissible to employment without any other requirement than their
ability. Equality is the basis of taxation and public burdens.
Section 17. - Property may not be violated, and no inhabitant of the Nation can be
deprived of it except by virtue of a sentence based on law. Expropriation for reasons of
public interest must be authorized by law and previously compensated. Only Congress
levies the taxes mentioned in Section 4. No personal service can be requested except by
virtue of a law or sentence based on law. Every author or inventor is the exclusive owner of
his work, invention, or discovery for the term granted by law. The confiscation of property
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is hereby abolished forever from the Argentine Criminal Code. No armed body may make
requisitions nor demand assistance of any kind.
Section 18.- No inhabitant of the Nation may be punished without previous trial
based on a law enacted before the act that gives rise to the process, nor tried by special
committees, nor removed from the judges appointed by law before the act for which he is
tried. Nobody may be compelled to testify against himself, nor be arrested except by virtue
of a written warrant issued by a competent authority. The defense by trial of persons and
rights may not be violated. The domicile may not be violated, as well as the written
correspondence and private papers; and a law shall determine in which cases and for what
reasons their search and occupation shall be allowed. Death penalty for political causes, any
kind of tortures and whipping, are forever abolished. The prisons of the Nation shall be
healthy and clean, for the security and not for the punishment of the prisoners confined
therein; and any measure taken with the pretext of precaution which may lead to mortify
them beyond the demands of security, shall render liable the judge who authorizes it.
Section 19. - The private actions of men which in no way offend public order or
morality, nor injure a third party, are only reserved to God and are exempted from the
authority of judges. No inhabitant of the Nation shall be obliged to perform what the law
does not demand nor deprived of what it does not prohibit.
Section 20. - Foreigners enjoy within the territory of the Nation all the civil rights
of citizens; they may exercise their industry, trade and profession; own real property, buy
and sell it; navigate the rivers and coasts; practice freely their religion; make wills and
marry under the laws. They are not obliged to accept citizenship nor to pay extraordinary
compulsory taxes. They may obtain naturalization papers residing two uninterrupted years
in the Nation; but the authorities may shorten this term in favor of those so requesting it,
alleging and proving services rendered to the Republic.
Section 21. - Every Argentine citizen is obliged to bear arms in defense of the
fatherland and of this Constitution, in accordance with the laws issued by Congress and the
Decrees of the National Executive Power to this effect. Citizens by naturalization are free
to render or not this service for a period of ten years as from the date they obtain
naturalization papers.
Section 22. - The people neither deliberate nor govern except through their
representatives and authorities established by this Constitution. Any armed force or meeting
of persons assuming the rights of the people and petitioning in their name, commits the
crime of sedition.
Section 23. - In the event of domestic disorder or foreign attack endangering the
full enforcement of this Constitution and of the authorities hereby established, the province
or territory which is in a turmoil shall be declared in state of siege and the constitutional
guarantees shall be suspended therein. But during such a suspension the President of the
Republic shall not pronounce judgment or apply penalties on his own. In such case, his
power shall be limited, with respect to persons, to their arrest or transfer from one place of
the Nation to another, should they not prefer to leave the Argentine territory.
Section 24.- Congress shall promote the reform of the present legislation in all its
branches, and the establishment of trial by jury.
Section 25.- The Federal Government shall foster European immigration; and may
not restrict, limit or burden with any tax whatsoever, the entry into the Argentine territory
of foreigners who arrive for the purpose of tilling the soil, improving industries, and
introducing and teaching arts and sciences.
Section 26.- Navigation of the inland rivers of the Nation is free for all flags, only
subject to the regulations issued by the national authority.
Section 27.- The Federal Government is under the obligation to strengthen its
relationships of peace and trade with foreign powers, by means of treaties in accordance
with the principles of public law laid down by this Constitution.
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Section 28.- The principles, guarantees and rights recognized in the preceding
sections shall not be modified by the laws that regulate their enforcement.
Section 29.- Congress may not vest on the National Executive Power - nor may the
provincial legislatures vest on the provincial governors - extraordinary powers or the total
public authority; it may not grant acts of submission or supremacy whereby the life, honor,
or wealth of the Argentine people will be at the mercy of governments or any person
whatsoever. Acts of this nature shall be utterly void, and shall render those who formulate
them, consent to them or sign them, liable to be condemned as infamous traitors to their
fatherland.
Section 30.- The Constitution may be totally or partially amended. The necessity of
reform must be declared by Congress with the vote of at least two-thirds of the members;
but it shall not be carried out except by an Assembly summoned to that effect.
Section 31.- This Constitution, the laws of the Nation enacted by Congress in
pursuance thereof, and treaties with foreign powers, are the supreme law of the Nation; and
the authorities of each province are bound thereby, notwithstanding any provision to the
contrary included in the provincial laws or constitutions, except for the province of Buenos
Aires, the treaties ratified after the Pact of November 11, 1859.
Section 32.- The Federal Congress shall not enact laws restricting the freedom of
the press or establishing federal jurisdiction over it.
Section 33.- The declarations, rights and guarantees which the Constitution
enumerates shall not be construed as a denial of other rights and guarantees not
enumerated, but rising from the principle of sovereignty of the people and from the
republican form of government.
Section 34.- The judges of the federal courts cannot at the same time hold an office
in the provincial courts. The federal service, whether civil or military, shall not grant a right
of residence in the province in which it is performed unless it is where the employee
habitually resides, this provision being understood as pertaining to the right to choose
employments in the province in which he accidentally happens to be.
Section 35.- The denominations successively adopted from 1810 up to the present,
namely: "United Provinces of the River Plate"; "Argentine Republic"; "Argentine
Confederation", shall henceforth be official names to be indistinctly used for the
designation of the government and territory of the provinces, the words "Argentine Nation"
being used in the making and enactment of laws.
CHAPTER II
NEW RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES
Section 36.- This Constitution shall rule even when its observance is interrupted by
acts of force against the institutional order and the democratic system. These acts shall be
irreparably null.
Their authors shall be punished with the penalty foreseen in Section 29, disqualified in
perpetuity from holding public offices and excluded from the benefits of pardon and
commutation of sentences.
Those who, as a consequence of these acts, were to assume the powers foreseen for the
authorities of this Constitution or for those of the provinces, shall be punished with the
same penalties and shall be civil and criminally liable for their acts. The respective actions
shall not be subject to prescription.
All citizens shall have the right to oppose resistance to those committing the acts of force
stated in this section.
He who, procuring personal enrichment, incurs in serious fraudulent offense against the
Nation shall also attempt against the democratic system, and shall be disqualified to hold
public office for the term specified by law.
Congress shall enact a law on public ethics which shall rule the exercise of public office.
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Section 37.- This Constitution guarantees the full exercise of political rights, in
accordance with the principle of popular sovereignty and with the laws derived therefrom.
Suffrage shall be universal, equal, secret and compulsory.
Actual equality of opportunities for men and women to elective and political party positions
shall be guaranteed by means of positive actions in the regulation of political parties and in
the electoral system.
Section 38.- Political parties are basic institutions of the democratic system.
This Constitution guarantees the free establishment and exercise of their activities, as well
as their democratic organization and performance, representation of minority groups,
competition for those standing as candidates for elective public positions, access to public
information and communication of their ideas.
The State contributes to the economic support of their activities and the training of their
leaders.
Political parties shall make public the source and destiny of their funds and assets.
Section 39.- Citizens shall have the right to introduce bills before the House of
Deputies. Congress shall consider them within the term of twelve months.
Congress shall enact, with the vote of the absolute majority of all the members of each
House, a regulatory law that cannot demand more than three per cent of the national voters
register, which shall be consistent with an adequate territorial distribution in order to
support the initiative.
Bills referring to constitutional reform, international treaties, taxation, budget, and criminal
legislation shall not originate in popular initiatives.
Section 40.- At the initiative of the House of Deputies, Congress may submit a bill
to popular consultation. The law calling said consultation shall not be vetoed. With the
affirmative vote of the people of the Nation, the bill shall become a law and its
promulgation shall be automatic.
Congress or the President of the Nation, according to their respective powers, shall call a
non-binding popular consultation. In this case voting shall not be compulsory.
With the vote of the absolute majority of all the members of each House, Congress shall
regulate the subjects, procedures and time of the popular consultation.
Section 41.- All inhabitants are entitled to the right to a healthy and balanced
environment fit for human development in order that productive activities shall meet
present needs without endangering those of future generations; and shall have the duty to
preserve it. As a first priority, environmental damage shall bring about the obligation to
repair it according to law.
The authorities shall provide for the protection of this right, the rational use of natural
resources, the preservation of the natural and cultural heritage and of the biological
diversity, and shall also provide for environmental information and education.
The Nation shall regulate the minimum protection standards, and the provinces those
necessary to reinforce them, without altering their local jurisdictions.
The entry into the national territory of present or potential dangerous wastes, and of
radioactive ones, is forbidden.
Section 42.- As regards consumption, consumers and users of goods and services
have the right to the protection of their health, safety, and economic interests; to adequate
and truthful information; to freedom of choice and equitable and reliable treatment.
The authorities shall provide for the protection of said rights, the education for
consumption, the defense of competition against any kind of market distortions, the control
of natural and legal monopolies, the control of quality and efficiency of public utilities, and
the creation of consumer and user associations.
Legislation shall establish efficient procedures for conflict prevention and settlement, as
well as regulations for national public utilities. Such legislation shall take into account the
necessary participation of consumer and user associations and of the interested provinces in
the control entities.
Section 43.- Any person shall file a prompt and summary proceeding regarding
constitutional guarantees, provided there is no other legal remedy, against any act or
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omission of the public authorities or individuals which currently or imminently may
damage, limit, modify or threaten rights and guarantees recognized by this Constitution,
treaties or laws, with open arbitrariness or illegality. In such case, the judge may declare
that the act or omission is based on an unconstitutional rule.
This summary proceeding against any form of discrimination and about rights protecting
the environment, competition, users and consumers, as well as about rights of general
public interest, shall be filed by the damaged party, the ombudsman and the associations
which foster such ends registered according to a law determining their requirements and
organization forms.
Any person shall file this action to obtain information on the data about himself and their
purpose, registered in public records or data bases, or in private ones intended to supply
information; and in case of false data or discrimination, this action may be filed to request
the suppression, rectification, confidentiality or updating of said data. The secret nature of
the sources of journalistic information shall not be impaired.
When the right damaged, limited, modified, or threatened affects physical liberty, or in case
of an illegitimate worsening of procedures or conditions of detention, or of forced missing
of persons, the action of habeas corpus shall be filed by the party concerned or by any other
person on his behalf, and the judge shall immediately make a decision even under state of
siege.
SECOND PART
AUTHORITIES OF THE NATION
TITLE I
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
FIRST DIVISION
LEGISLATIVE POWER
Section 44.- The Legislative Power of the Nation shall be vested in a Congress
composed of two Houses, one of Deputies of the Nation and the other of Senators for the
provinces and for the City of Buenos Aires.
CHAPTER I
The House of Deputies
Section 45.- The House of Deputies shall be composed of representatives directly
elected by the people of the provinces, of the City of Buenos Aires, and of the Capital City
in case of its moving, which for this purpose are considered as constituencies of a single
state, and by simple plurality of votes. The number of representatives shall be one for every
thirty-three thousand inhabitants or fraction not under sixteen thousand five hundred
inhabitants. After each census, Congress shall establish the representation in accordance
with the same, being empowered to increase but not to decrease the basis indicated for each
deputy.
Section 46.- The deputies for the first legislative session shall be appointed in the
following proportion: for the province of Buenos Aires, twelve; for that of C¢rdoba, six; for
that of Catamarca, three; for that of Corrientes, four; for that of Entre R¡os, two; for that of
Jujuy, two; for that of Mendoza, three; for that of La Rioja, two; for that of Salta, three; for
that of Santiago, four; for that of San Juan, two; for that of Santa Fe, two; for that of San
Luis, two; and for that of Tucum n, three.
Section 47.- For the second legislative session a general census shall be carried out
and the number of deputies shall be arranged according thereto; but this census shall only
be renewed every ten years.
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Section 48.- In order to be a deputy it is necessary to have attained to the age of 25
years; to have been four years a fully qualified citizen; and to be a native of the province
electing him or to have two years of immediate residence therein.
Section 49.- On this occasion, the Legislatures of the provinces shall regulate the
means to hold the direct election of the deputies of the Nation; in the future, Congress shall
enact a general law.
Section 50.- Deputies shall hold office for a term of four years and may be reelected;
but the House shall be renewed by halves every two years; for this purpose those
elected for the first legislative session, after meeting, shall draw lots to decide which seats
shall be vacated after the first period.
Section 51.- In case of vacancy, the Government of the province or of the Capital
City shall proceed to call a legal election for a new member.
Section 52.- All bills for raising revenue and for the recruitment of troops shall
exclusively originate in the House of Deputies.
Section 53.- Only the House of Deputies has the power to impeach before the
Senate the President, the Vice-President, the Chief of the Ministerial Cabinet, the Ministers,
and the Justices of the Supreme Court, in such cases of responsibility as are brought against
them for misconduct or crimes committed in the fulfillment of their duties; or for ordinary
crimes, after having known about them and after the decision to bring an action had been
voted by a majority of two-thirds of its members present.
CHAPTER II
The Senate
Section 54.- The Senate shall be composed of three senators from each province,
and three from the City of Buenos Aires, who shall be jointly and directly elected,
corresponding two seats to the most voted political party, and the other seat to the political
party following in number of votes. Each senator shall have one vote.
Section 55.- In order to be elected senator the following conditions are required: to
have attained to the age of 30, to have been six years a citizen of the Nation, to have an
annual income of two thousand strong pesos or similar revenues, and to be a native of the
province electing him or to have two years of immediate residence therein.
Section 56.- Senators shall hold office for a term of six years and may be
indefinitely re-elected; but the Senate shall be renewed by one-third of the constituencies
every two years.
Section 57.- The Vice-President of the Nation shall be the President of the Senate;
but he shall have no vote unless in case of equality of votes.
Section 58.- The Senate shall appoint a President pro tempore to preside it in case
of absence of the Vice-President, or when he holds the office of President of the Nation.
Section 59.- The Senate shall have the sole power to judge in public trial those
impeached by the House of Deputies, and its members must be on oath when sitting for this
purpose. When the President of the Nation is impeached, the Senate shall be presided by
the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. No person shall be declared guilty without the
concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
Section 60.- The judgment shall not extend further than to remove the accused
person from office, and to disqualify him to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit in the
Nation. But the party declared guilty shall, nevertheless, be subject to accusation, trial, and
punishment according to law before the ordinary courts.
Section 61.- In case of foreign attack, the Senate is also empowered to authorize the
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President of the Nation to declare in state of siege one or several places of the Republic.
Section 62.- When any vacancy occurs in the Senate because of death, resignation
or other cause, the government to which the vacancy belongs shall immediately call an
election for a new member.
CHAPTER III
Provisions applicable to both Houses
Section 63.- Both Houses shall assemble, on their own account, every year in
ordinary legislative session from March 1 until November 30. The President of the Nation
may convoke to extraordinary legislative session or extend the ordinary one.
Section 64.- Each House shall be the judge of the elections, rights and
qualifications of its members, as regards their validity. Neither of them shall meet without
the absolute majority of its members; but a smaller number may compel the absent
members to attend the meetings, in the terms and under the penalties as each House may
provide.
Section 65.- Both Houses begin and conclude their legislative session
simultaneously. Neither of them, while they sit, shall adjourn its meetings for more than
three days without the consent of the other.
Section 66.- Each House shall make its rules of proceedings, and with the
concurrence of two-thirds may correct any one of its members for disorderly behavior in
the exercise of his duties, or can remove him on account of physical or moral disability
occurring after his admission, and may even expel him from the body; but a majority of one
more than the half of those present shall be enough to decide on voluntary resignations
from office.
Section 67.- Senators and deputies, on assuming office, shall take an oath to duly
perform their duties and to act in all matters in accordance with the provisions herein
established.
Section 68.- No member of Congress shall be accused, judicially examined, or
disturbed for opinions expressed or speeches delivered by him while holding office as
legislator.
Section 69.- No senator or deputy shall be arrested as from the day of his election
until the expiration of his term, except when flagrantly surprised committing a crime
deserving capital punishment or other infamous or serious punishment, in which case a
summary report of the facts shall be submitted to the corresponding House.
Section 70.- When a written complaint is filed before the ordinary courts against
any senator or deputy, once examined if there is enough evidence in a public trial, each
House may, with the concurrence of two-thirds of the votes, suspend the accused party
from his office and place him under the jurisdiction of the competent court to be judged.
Section 71.- Either House shall summon the Ministers of the Executive Power to
receive such explanations or reports as it may deem necessary.
Section 72.- No member of Congress shall be appointed to any civil office or
commission under the Executive Power, without the previous consent of the respective
House, except for employments subject to promotions.
Section 73.- Neither the regular members of the clergy nor governors in
representation of their own provinces, may be members of Congress.
Section 74.- The senators and deputies shall receive a remuneration for their
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services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the Nation.
.
CHAPTER lV
Powers of Congress
Section 75.- Congress is empowered:
1.- To legislate about national Customs. To lay import and export duties that
shall be uniform throughout the Nation as well as the valuations on which
they are assessed.
2.- To levy indirect taxes as a power concurrent with the provinces. To levy
direct taxes for a specified term and proportionally equal throughout the
national territory, provided that the defense, common security and general
welfare of the State so require it. The taxes under this subsection are subject
to joint participation, except for those which, in part or in all, have specific
allocation.
An agreement-law based on understandings between the Nation and the
provinces shall establish systems of joint participation for these taxes,
guaranteeing the automatic remittance of funds.
The distribution among the Nation, the provinces and the City of Buenos
Aires, and among themselves, shall be carried out in direct relation to the
jurisdictions, services and functions of each one of them taking into account
objective sharing criteria; it shall be based on principles of equity and
solidarity giving priority to the achievement of a similar degree of
development, of living standards and equal opportunities throughout the
national territory.
The agreement-law shall originate in the Senate and shall be enacted with the
absolute majority of all the members of each House; it shall be neither
unilaterally amended nor regulated, and shall be approved by the provinces.
There shall be no transfer of jurisdictions, services or functions without the
corresponding reallocation of funds approved by a law of Congress, when
appropriate, and by the interested province or the City of Buenos Aires, as
the case may be.
A federal fiscal body shall be in charge of the control and monitoring of what
is laid down in this subsection, according to the law which shall guarantee
the representation of all the provinces and of the City of Buenos Aires as
regards its composition.
3.- To set and modify specific allocations that may be subject to joint
participation, for a specified term, by a special law enacted with the absolute
majority of all the members of each House.
4.- To borrow money on the credit of the Nation.
5.- To decide about the use and sale of national lands.
6.- To establish and regulate a Federal bank with power to issue money, as
well as other national banks.
7.- To settle the payment of the domestic and foreign debt of the Nation.
8.- To fix annually, according to the standards laid down in the third
paragraph of subsection 2 of this Section, the general budget of expenses and
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the estimate of resources of the National Administration, based on the
general program of the government and on the public investment plan, and to
approve or reject the investment account.
9.- To grant subsidies from the National Treasury to those provinces the
incomes of which, according to their budgets, do not cover their ordinary
expenses.
10.- To regulate the free navigation of inland rivers, to authorize the
operation of such ports as it shall consider necessary, and to set up or
suppress Customs.
11.- To coin money, to regulate the value thereof and that of foreign
currency; and to adopt a uniform standard of weights and measures for the
whole Nation.
12.- To enact the Civil, Commercial, Criminal, Mining, Labor and Social
Security Codes, in unified or separate bodies, provided that such codes do
not alter local jurisdictions, and their enforcement shall correspond to the
federal or provincial courts depending on the respective jurisdictions for
persons or things; and particularly to enact general laws of naturalization and
nationality for the whole nation, based on the principle of nationality by birth
or by option for the benefit of Argentina; as well as laws on bankruptcy,
counterfeiting of currency and public documents of the State, and those laws
that may be required to establish trial by jury.
13.- To regulate trade with foreign nations, and of the provinces among
themselves.
14.- To regulate and establish the general post offices of the Nation.
15.- To settle definitely the boundaries of the national territory, to fix those
of the provinces, to create new ones, and to determine, by special legislation,
the organization, administration and government that the national territories
outside the boundaries assigned to the provinces are to have.
16.- To provide for the security of the frontiers.
17.- To recognize the ethnic and cultural pre-existence of indigenous peoples
of Argentina.
To guarantee respect for the identity and the right to bilingual and
intercultural education; to recognize the legal capacity of their communities,
and the community possession and ownership of the lands they traditionally
occupy; and to regulate the granting of other lands adequate and sufficient
for human development; none of them shall be sold, transmitted or subject to
liens or attachments. To guarantee their participation in issues related to their
natural resources and in other interests affecting them. The provinces may
jointly exercise these powers.
18.- To provide for the prosperity of the country, for the advance and welfare
of all the provinces, and for the progress of education, drawing up general
and university educational plans, and promoting industry, immigration, the
construction of railways and navigable canals, the colonization of
government-owned lands, the introduction and establishment of new
industries, the imports of foreign capital, and the exploration of inland rivers,
through laws protecting these aims and through temporary grants of
privileges and stimulating rewards.
19.- To provide everything relevant to human development, economic
progress with social justice, the growth of the national economy, the creation
of jobs, the professional training of workers, the defense of the currency
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value, the scientific and technological research and development, their
overall diffusion and beneficial use.
To provide for the harmonious growth of the Nation and the settlement of its
territory; to promote differential policies in order to balance the relative
unequal development of provinces and regions. These initiatives shall
originate in the Senate.
To enact laws referring to the organization and basis of education
consolidating national unity and respecting provincial and local
characteristics; which ensure the state responsibility that cannot be delegated,
family and society participation, the fostering of democratic values and equal
opportunities and possibilities with no discrimination whatsoever; and which
guarantee the principles of free and equitable State public education as well
as the autonomy and autarky of national universities.
To enact laws protecting the cultural identity and plurality, the free creation
and circulation of artistic works of authors, the artistic heritage and places
devoted to cultural and audiovisual activities.
20.- To establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court; to create and suppress
employments, to fix the duties thereof, to grant pensions, to decree honors
and to grant general amnesties.
21.- To accept or reject the reasons for the resignation of the President or
Vice-President of the Republic, and declare the need to call a new election
when required.
22.- To approve or reject treaties concluded with other nations and
international organizations, and concordats with the Holy See. Treaties and
concordats have a higher hierarchy than laws.
The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man; the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights; the American Convention on Human Rights;
the International Pact on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the
International Pact on Civil and Political Rights and its empowering Protocol;
the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide; the
International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial
Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination against Woman; the Convention against Torture and other
Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatments or Punishments; the Convention on
the Rights of the Child; in the full force of their provisions, they have
constitutional hierarchy, do no repeal any section of the First Part of this
Constitution and are to be understood as complementing the rights and
guarantees recognized herein. They shall only be denounced, in such event,
by the National Executive Power after the approval of two-thirds of all the
members of each House.
In order to attain constitutional hierarchy, the other treaties and conventions
on human rights shall require the vote of two-thirds of all the members of
each House, after their approval by Congress.
23.- To legislate and promote positive measures guaranteeing true equal
opportunities and treatment, the full benefit and exercise of the rights
recognized by this Constitution and by the international treaties on human
rights in force, particularly referring to children, women, the aged, and
disabled persons.
To issue a special and integral social security system to protect children from
abandonment, since pregnancy up to the end of elementary education, and to
protect the mother during pregnancy and the period of lactation.
12
24.- To approve treaties of integration which delegate powers and
jurisdiction to supranational organizations under reciprocal and equal
conditions, and which respect the democratic order and human rights. The
rules derived therefrom have a higher hierarchy than laws.
The approval of these treaties with Latin American States shall require the
absolute majority of all the members of each House. In the case of treaties
with other States, the National Congress, with the absolute majority of the
members present of each House, shall declare the advisability of the approval
of the treaty which shall only be approved with the vote of the absolute
majority of all the members of each House, one hundred and twenty days
after said declaration of advisability.
The denouncement of the treaties referred to in this subsection shall require
the prior approval of the absolute majority of all the members of each House.
25.- To authorize the Executive Power to declare war or make peace.
26.- To empower the Executive Power to order reprisals and to make rules
concerning the booty.
27.- To establish the Armed Forces in times of peace and war; and to make
rules for their organization and government.
28.- To authorize the entry of foreign troops into the territory of the Nation
and to allow national troops to leave the country.
29.- To declare in state of siege one or several parts of the Nation in case of
domestic commotion, and to approve or suspend the state of siege declared
by the Executive Power during a recess of Congress.
30.- To exercise exclusive legislation over the territory of the Capital City of
the Nation and to enact the legislation necessary for the achievement of the
specific ends of premises of national interest in the territory of the Republic.
Provincial and municipal authorities shall hold power to levy taxes and
power of police over these premises, insofar as they do not interfere with the
achievement of those ends.
31.- To order the federal intervention of a province or of the City of Buenos
Aires.
To approve or revoke the intervention decreed by the Executive Power
during its recess.
32.- To make all appropriate laws and rules to put into effect the
aforementioned powers, and all other powers granted by this Constitution to
the Government of the Argentine Nation.
Section 76.- The legislative powers shall not be delegated to the Executive Power
save for issues concerning administration and public emergency, with a specified term for
their exercise and according to the delegating conditions established by Congress.
The expiration of the term foreseen in the previous paragraph shall not imply the revision
of the legal relationships emerging from the rules issued as a result of the powers delegated
by Congress.
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Consitution of o5vx Empty Re: Consitution of o5vx

Post  northafricanpresident on Fri Jun 04, 2010 10:15 am

It seems like the Federal Republic of O5vx has a long constitution my friend the current constitution I have in place for the NAE is outdated so we are currently working on a new one for the country and I see that O5vx is divided into states. The NAE is divided up into Republics that range from Egypt to Nigeria which a republic president is elected for each of the republics to act as its governor and its own defense force for protection while the federal army focus on international wars and peacekeeping.
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